History of Republic of San Marino  

From the video Nemini teneri, which means Do not depend on anyone

© Copyright by V.E. Pizzulin & M. Cecchetti

San Marino


    The XIX century: Napoleon the III imposes on Cavour not to suppress San Marino

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Boutros Boutros-Ghali

Napoleon is vanquished.

The Congress of Vienna redraws the map of Italy. San Marino is not part of the debate, there is no reason why it should be.

San Marino is again surrounded by the Papal State, part of a patchwork peninsula, but by now unity is close at hand.

A united Italy is the goal of the liberals too, and a part of them dream of setting up a democratic republic.

San Marino’s popularity amongst those libe-rals soars in 1849, when Garibaldi their hero, with the Austrians hot on his heel, enters San Marino with a 1,000 survivors of the Roman republic and he is immediately surrounded. There is no escape. Either unconditional surrender or a fight to the bitter end.

The San Marino authorities act as mediators. They prolong negotiations and during the night allow Garibaldi, his wife Anita and the most implicated officers to slip away. Providing medical aid, food, money and safe conducts for the others.

The gratitude of Garibaldi and the democratic liberals will prove decisive for San Marino along with the protection of France now ruled over by another Napoleon.

In fact Cavour needs Napoleon III, Garibaldi and the liberals in order to unite the country. He can not afford to displease them.

In passing by San Marino in 1860, at the head of his Piemontese troops, Cavour leaves the country alone.

On the Titano people breathe again. The request is immediately sent to the Italian authorities that a treaty be drawn up for a recognition of sovereignty. That treaty is finally signed in 1862, after the death of Cavour, by prime minister  Rattazzi, who once more needs the help of Garibaldi and Napoleon.


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